Skip to main content

Table 3 Summary of T. pallidum uncharacterized proteins identified by structural modeling with potential roles in virulence

From: Functional insights from proteome-wide structural modeling of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis

Protein Phyre2 Virulence Model Templates (% confidence / % coverage) Roles in virulence Expression Analyses MSC
cDNA/DNA Protein
TPANIC_0020 • TgMIC2 (Toxoplasma gondii micronemal protein 2 A/I domain) (98.2 / 21.2) • Promotes active invasion [80] 2.206 E [47] -
• TRAP protein (Plasmodium vivax) (98.1 / 21.9) • Cell adhesion & invasion [81]
TPANIC_0126 • Outer membrane protein W (E. coli) (97.3 / 72.2) • Phagocytosis resistance [82] 1.115 E [47] +
• Outer membrane protein A (E. coli) (94.8 / 64.1) • Host adhesion, invasion and immune evasion [83]
• Outer membrane protein OprG (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (93.9 / 70.0) • Cytotoxicity [84]
• Outer membrane protein F (P. aeruginosa) (92.8 / 51.1) • Host adhesion [85]
• NspA (Neisseria surface protein A) (90.4 / 64.1) • Factor H-binding and complement resistance [86]
TPANIC_0134 • Bacterial sialidases/neuraminidases (Micromonospora viridifaciens, Vibrio cholera, Parabacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Streptococcus pneumoniae) (98.9-99.4 / 69.4-72.3) V. cholera; facilitates cholera toxin cell binding and penetration [87] 3.586 ND +
S. pneumoniae; host cell glycan damage promotes colonization of respiratory tract [88, 89]
TPANIC_0225 • Leucine-rich repeat surface proteins (Eubacterium ventriosum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides species) (99.9-100 / 72.4-83.3) • Host adhesion [90] 2.27 ND -
• PcpA (S. pneumoniae choline-binding protein) (100 / 99.6) • Host adhesion [91]
TPANIC_0246 • TRAP protein (P. vivax) (99.9 / 35.7) • Cell recognition & invasion [81] 0.096 E [47] -
• TRAP protein (Plasmodium falciparum) (99.8 / 35.8) • Cell recognition & invasion [81]
  • TgMIC2 (T. gondii micronemal protein 2 A/I domain) (99.8 / 30.5) • Active invasion [80]    
TPANIC_0421 • PknD (Mycobacterium tuberculosis serine/threonine protein kinase, extracellular domain) (99.9 / 37.6) • Adhesion and invasion of brain endothelia [92] 0.686 E [47] -
TPANIC_0544 • SmcL (Listeria ivanovii Sphingomyelinase-C) (99.9 / 51.9) • Cytotoxicity [93, 94] 0.811 E [47] -
• Beta-hemolysin toxin (Staphylococcus aureus) (99.9 / 51.4) • Cytotoxicity [95]
• Cytolethal distending toxin protein B (S. enterica, Haemophilus ducreyi) (99.9 / 51.9-52.1) • Cytotoxicity [96]
TPANIC_0579 • YenC2 (Yersinia entomophaga ABC toxin; BC component) (93.8 / 36.8) • Cytotoxicity [97] 0.268 E [47] -
TPANIC_0594 • HP1028 (Helicobacter pylori lipocalin) (100 / 64.8) • Host colonization and persistence [98, 99] 2.238 ND +
TPANIC_0598 • BamB (Moraxella catarrhalis Beta barrel assembly machinery protein B) (97.9 / 56.3) • BAM complex; assembly and insertion of beta-barrel proteins in outer membrane [100, 101] 0.272 E [47] -
TPANIC_0625 • BamD (Beta barrel assembly machinery protein) (Rhodothermus marinus, E. coli) (95.9-97.0 / 27.6-46.8) • Essential BAM complex protein; assembly and insertion of beta-barrel proteins in outer membrane [102] 0.461 E [47] -
TPANIC_0733 • NspA (Neisseria surface protein A) (97.8 / 58.4) • Factor H-binding and complement resistance [86] 1.735 ND +
• Ail (Yersinia pestis attachment invasion locus protein) (93.6 / 64.4) • Host cell attachment, invasion, and complement resistance [103,104,105]
TPANIC_0783 • BamB (E. coli Beta barrel assembly machinery protein B) (96.2 / 24.7) • BAM complex; assembly and insertion of beta-barrel proteins in outer membrane [100, 101] 0.402 ND -
TPANIC_0789 • LolA (P. aeruginosa outer- membrane lipoprotein carrier/localization protein) (99.5 / 86) • Translocation of lipoproteins to the outer membrane [106, 107] 1.283 E [47, 48] -
• LprG (M. tuberculosis lipid- binding protein (96.8 / 71.7) • TLR2-agonist; inhibits primary human macrophage MHC-II Ag processing [108]
TPANIC_0854 • Bacterial sialidases/neuraminidases (M. viridifaciens, V. cholera, P. distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa) (98.9-99.5 / 17.0-25.8) V. cholera; facilitates cholera toxin cell binding and penetration [87] 0.221 E [47] -
S. pneumoniae; host cell glycan damage promotes colonization of upper respiratory tract [88, 89]
TPANIC_0911 • EscU (E. coli type 3 secretion system protein) (100 / 96.4) • Type 3 effector translocation into host cells [109] 0.701 ND -
• SpaS (Shigella flexneri type 3 secretion system protein) (99.9 / 94.0) • Invasion and secretion of invasion plasmid antigens [110]
TPANIC_0928 • SurA (E. coli chaperone) (100 / 84.0) • Folding and assembly of outer membrane proteins [101] 1.049 E [47] -
TPANIC_0966 • TolC (E. coli outer membrane channel protein) (100 / 79.4) • Type 1 secretion and drug efflux [111,112,113,114] 0.856 ND -
TPANIC_0967 • TolC (E. coli outer membrane channel protein) (99.0 / 85.7) • Type 1 secretion and drug efflux [111,112,113,114] 2.844 E [47] +
TPANIC_0968 • TolC (E. coli outer membrane channel protein) (98.8 / 85.2) • Type 1 secretion and drug efflux [111,112,113,114] 3.256 E [47] +
TPANIC_0969 • TolC (E. coli outer membrane channel protein) (99.0 / 87.0) • Type 1 secretion and drug efflux [111,112,113,114] 2.751 E [47, 48] +
  1. cDNA/DNA ratios indicate transcript expression levels from a previous rabbit infection study where a value of 1.0 represents the mean transcript expression level for all T. pallidum genes in the study [45]. E; proteins known to be expressed during rabbit infection (ND; proteins not detected) [47, 48]. MSC; T. pallidum subspecies pallidum proteins that contain major sequence changes compared to orthologs from subspecies pertenue and T. paraluiscuniculi [55, 61]