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Table 1 Mean amino acid propensities in three-residue left-handed turns and flanking positions.a

From: Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids

  N" any conformation N' not αL Ncap αL N1/C1 αL Ccap αL C' not αL C" any conformation
ALA 0.52(0.26..1.89) 0.34(0.15..1.43) 0.86(0.42..2.69) 1.03(0.49..3.08) 0.86(0.42..2.69) 0.52(0.26..1.87) 1.55(0.66..4.24)
ARG 0.82(0.41..2.95) 0.54(0.24..2.24) 0.54(0.24..2.24) 0.27(0.02..1.51) 0.27(0.02..1.51) 1.34(0.66..4.19) 1.07(0.54..3.56)
ASN 0.66(0.29..2.73) 2.59(1.15..7.23) 5.49(1.86..13.47) 4.85(1.73..12.11) 2.91(1.25..7.95) 0.65(0.28..2.69) 0.32(0.03..1.82)
ASP 0.95(0.48..3.15) 1.17(0.57..3.66) 2.35(0.97..6.29) 0.94(0.47..3.11) 0.00(-0.38..0.48) 0.70(0.35..2.54) 1.64(0.75..4.73)
CYS 3.18(1.58..11.46) 1.04(0.09..5.88) 2.09(0.92..8.69) 1.04(0.09..5.88) 0.00(-1.68..2.13) 1.04(0.09..5.88) 2.09(0.92..8.69)
GLN 0.73(0.32..3.05) 0.36(0.03..2.03) 0.00(-0.58..0.74) 0.72(0.32..3.01) 1.08(0.54..3.91) 3.61(1.50..9.67) 0.36(0.03..2.03)
GLU 1.43(0.66..4.11) 0.81(0.40..2.67) 0.60(0.30..2.18) 0.20(0.02..1.13) 0.00(-0.32..0.41) 0.20(0.02..1.13) 0.40(0.18..1.68)
GLY 1.38(0.63..3.97) 1.17(0.55..3.48) 1.36(0.62..3.92) 2.91(1.04..7.28) 7.00(1.53..15.53) 1.55(0.69..4.35) 1.36(0.62..3.92)
HIS 0.61(0.05..3.41) 1.19(0.53..4.97) 1.19(0.53..4.97) 3.58(1.70..10.67) 0.00(-0.96..1.22) 1.19(0.53..4.97) 0.60(0.05..3.36)
ILE 0.49(0.22..2.03) 0.48(0.21..2.01) 0.24(0.02..1.36) 0.00(-0.39..0.49) 0.00(-0.39..0.49) 0.96(0.48..3.19) 0.48(0.21..2.01)
LEU 1.49(0.62..4.00) 0.88(0.42..2.64) 0.44(0.22..1.60) 0.59(0.30..1.95) 0.15(0.01..0.83) 0.29(0.13..1.23) 0.59(0.30..1.95)
LYS 0.00(-0.39..0.49) 0.24(0.02..1.34) 0.71(0.35..2.57) 0.48(0.21..1.98) 0.00(-0.38..0.48) 1.90(0.84..5.32) 0.95(0.48..3.15)
MET 2.45(1.22..8.83) 1.61(0.71..6.70) 0.80(0.07..4.53) 0.00(-1.29..1.64) 0.00(-1.29..1.64) 0.80(0.07..4.53) 0.80(0.07..4.53)
PHE 0.34(0.03..1.90) 1.33(0.67..4.42) 1.33(0.67..4.42) 1.00(0.50..3.61) 2.67(1.18..7.47) 0.33(0.03..1.88) 1.00(0.50..3.61)
PRO 0.31(0.03..1.72) 1.21(0.60..4.00) 0.00(-0.49..0.61) 0.00(-0.49..0.61) 0.00(-0.49..0.61) 0.30(0.03..1.70) 2.11(0.97..6.08)
SER 1.66(0.76..4.77) 0.94(0.47..3.10) 0.23(0.02..1.32) 1.40(0.67..4.18) 0.94(0.47..3.10) 1.40(0.67..4.18) 0.94(0.47..3.10)
THR 2.10(0.93..5.86) 2.58(1.07..6.92) 0.78(0.39..2.80) 0.00(-0.42..0.53) 0.00(-0.42..0.53) 2.07(0.92..5.79) 1.29(0.63..4.03)
TRP 0.00(-1.54..1.95) 0.00(-1.52..1.92) 3.78(1.89..12.50) 2.83(1.41..10.23) 0.94(0.08..5.32) 0.94(0.08..5.32) 0.94(0.08..5.32)
TYR 0.79(0.35..3.30) 1.57(0.78..5.18) 1.17(0.58..4.24) 0.78(0.34..3.26) 1.57(0.78..5.18) 0.78(0.34..3.26) 0.39(0.03..2.20)
VAL 0.99(0.48..3.07) 0.78(0.39..2.57) 0.19(0.02..1.09) 0.19(0.02..1.09) 0.00(-0.31..0.40) 0.58(0.29..2.11) 1.17(0.55..3.48)
  1. a Propensities greater than one indicate favorable interactions while values less than one indicate unfavorable interactions. Ranges in parentheses indicate 95% confidence intervals calculated using the Wilson interval score (ref [62]). Corresponding raw counts are in Additional Files 1: Table S2. Suggested N and C-capping motifs corroborated by structural data are highlighted in bold.