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Fig. 6 | BMC Structural Biology

Fig. 6

From: Combined small angle X-ray solution scattering with atomic force microscopy for characterizing radiation damage on biological macromolecules

Fig. 6

AFM imaging of TMV using tapping mode in liquid environment. Top row (a, b, c) is TMV deposited on HOPG whereas bottom row (d, e, f) corresponds to TMV deposited on Nickel pre-treated mica. Non-irradiated TMV is shown in (a, d). Increasing exposure to X-ray beam is shown in (b, e) for 10 s exposure, and (c, f) 30 min exposure. The scan size is 5 μm with each line made of 512 pixels. A clear fragmentation of the 300 nm-long TMV can be observed upon increase in exposure time (radiation damage). To the contrary of β-Amylase (Fig. 2), even at standard exposure time, a beginning of fragmentation is observed for TMV. A total of 14 AFM images has been used for statistical analysis representing 6539 particles on HOPG at 10 μm scan size, 2007 particles on HOPG at 5 μm scan size, and 808 particles on nickel pre-treated mica

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